August 17, 2010—Farmers who once relied on food aid, and were too poor to buy seeds, are once again farming remote parts of Tajikistan.
Ten years ago, the Red River watershed and its people were ravaged by a brutal civil war and the collapse of the Soviet agrarian system.Today trees, bees and livestock are raised again, thanks in part to a project supported by the World Bank that aims to help farmers—working in groups–to produce more and earn more while rehabilitating the ecosystem.
Posts Tagged ‘Soviet Union’
Tags: Afghanistan, Food security, Red River, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, United States, World Bank
Tags: Tajikistan, Central Asia, Asia, Dushanbe, Soviet Union, Russia, YouTube, tourism
Tags: Tajikistan, Central Asia, Asia, Dushanbe, Soviet Union, Russia, YouTube
Tags: Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Pamir Mountains, Soviet Union, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, PAMIR, Kyzylsoo
Every ridge and region of Pamir has its passes’ set of any complication category.
In this case, passes from 2B and higher prevail, the number of passes with 1A and 1B complication is not great. The height of passes in the whole is in the limits from 4000 to 6000 meters. The height of general mass of passes is about 5000 meters, the number of passes exceeding this height is also considerable.
Thus treks and expeditions on Pamir are connected with a long continuous staying on the altitudes of over 4000 meters, it happens that the time of a continuous staying on the altitudes over 5000 meters sometimes reaches its highest value (about half of a month).
As a rule, passes and mountains of Pamir require long up and down approach with getting through water obstacles, glaciers, snow- capped ice slopes and rocky areas. Passes and interesting to climb are mainly located in remote, difficult-to-access regions (the Lenin’s Peak from the North is an rare exception). The approach to many of them is possible only from reserved areas where you can run only through complicated passes or by using helicopter. For more complicated passes the passage of the main passing obstacle with neighboring up approaches takes 4-5 days. Passes 1A and 1B being inside the region often takes one-two days walk. During passes’ walking often happen overnight stayings on the stone moraines, on the snow, on the ice, on the slopes and saddle of passes, sometimes arises necessity to build neve blocks walls and in digging of snowy caves. Getting over passes requires the usage of complete set of climbing gear, technical means and tactical methods which are practiced in mountaineering.
Pamir is characterized by 4-6 categories of complication for the trekking and pass-hopping routes. The elaboration of rules for logical treks of less complication with running through the everlasting snow zone is difficult. Objectively, this fact is caused by rather small number of low difficulty passes, and also its scanty comfortable combination passes of other complication. So, Pamir is more suitable area to mountaineering. Natural-climatic conditions of Pamir and characteristics of passes requiring high physical, technical, tactical training of trekkers make from tour safety point of view the organization of the treks of 3 and less complication category is too problematic. Climbing routes are mostly ice, snow and neve, less rocky, that’s can be considered as common for high mountain areas.
Administratively Pamir lies mainly on the territory of Tajikistan. Only the northern outskirts of Zaalaisky ridge descending to the Alaiskaya valley belong to Kirgiziya.
The main means of communication on Pamir is automobile and aviation transport. The basis of automobile connection here is the Cross-Pamir road which begins from the town Osh in the Ferganskaya valley. This road crosses Alaiskaya valley from the North to the South, stretches to the South on the Pamir plateau along the river Piandge to the North and then to the West towards the city Dushanbe (the capital of Tajikistan, which is connected by air to the Moscow, Novosibirsk and some of the Central Asia states). From this main road, roads of the local importance are constructed to the South and to the East along Piandge, there are small parts by the valleys of rivers Shahdara, Bartang, Yazgulem, Vanch, Obi-Hingou. Near the lake Kharakul truck road goes to the valleys of rivers Khokhuibel and Tanimas. The city of Dushanbe is connected with such small towns as Murgab and Horog, with district centers Rushan, Vanch by local airlines. There is also an airline to the towns Tavil-Dara and Jirgatal situating on the western borders of Pamir. The start and the finish points of treks belong to this transport network.
Pamir is the highest alpine chain in the South of the ex-SU, these days the territory of the Kirghizia (Kirgiztan) and Tajikistan. It occupies the area of approximately 60 000 square kilometers and presents the extensive network of eversnow- covered ridges and vast intermountain valleys which form Pamir plateau.
Mountaineering Pamir exploration began together with the first research expeditions of Soviet Academy of Sciences on Pamir in the 1928 – 1933ths. Tourist expeditions on Pamir were firstly made in 50ths and for the time being Pamir is the most popular outdoor mountainous region among those of CIS. In mountaineering practical experience Pamir’s boundaries are accepted on the basis of ridges’ orography and their trek’s resources. From the East Pamir is limited by Sarykolsky ridge on the axis of which there are borders of ex-USSR and China. The southern border passes along the river Piandge separating Tajikistan and Kirgizia from Afghanistan and the northern one is limited by the river Kyzyl -Soo (Kyzylsoo), consecutively adopting the name Sourhob and then Vakhsh. In the West Pamir finishes with the ridges outskirts – of Peter The Great and Darvazsky.
The highest ridges and massive glaciers are clustered in the western part of Pamir. Most ridges’ peaks are more than 6000 meters high and sometimes rise over 7000 meters high. There are 3 of 4 peaks above 7000 meters high on Pamir including the highest mountain of ex-USSR – Communism Peak in Akademii Nauk range (recently this peak is re-named to “Ismoili Somoni peak”), and Lenin peak (7134 m) – popular peak for those who’re trying their 1st attempt of high-altitude climbing. The highest top of the whole Pamir area however situated in the Chinese part of the East Pamir – it is Muztag Ata peak (7546 m).
The plateau of 4000 meters high and more occupies the eastern part of Pamir and stretches from its north to the south, being only once separated by Muzcol ridge.
Peak Korjenevskoy 1
Peak Korjenevskoy 2
Muztag Ata (China)
Tags: Central Asia, Oil, resources, Soviet Union, Tajikistan
Land of the Naphtha Fountain
Written by Zayn Bilkadi
Illustrated by Bob Lapsley
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the undeveloped or underdeveloped oil resources of the new nations that were formerly Soviet republics have been much in the news. But that news is in fact very old. The existence of rich oil resources in the region from the western slopes of the Caspian Sea basin to the mountains of Afghanistan has been known for millennia.
The ancient Greeks and Romans could not help but notice on their travels the spectacular “eternal fires” that dotted the landscape all the way from Baku, in present-day Azerbaijan, to Persia and Turkmenia. Legend has it that one of the servants of Alexander the Great accidently struck oil while trying to pitch a tent for his master in Turkmenia. According to the Roman historian Pliny the Elder, Alexander the Great observed burning natural oil wells in Bactria, which comprised today’s northern Afghanistan and parts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (See Aramco World, May-June 1994).
The land from northwestern Iran to Azerbaijan was known in ancient times as Media, where the most numerous “eternal fires,” or burning oil seeps, probably inspired Zoroastrianism, the religion of the Persians that dates from roughly 600 BC. “The Pillars of Fire” near Baku became a center of worship and pilgrimage. The title of Zoroastrian priests was athravan, or “keeper of the fire.” Even the word Azerbaijan itself is rooted in the ancient Persian aderbadagan, “garden of fire.”
Neither Romans nor Persians, however, left us records of the trade in oil that must have existed in the region in ancient times. Such records were only written centuries later by the Arabs, who conquered the Caucasus within only 26 years of the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 and who, by 751, had become masters of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and Kashgar. The newly Muslim lands then included all the world’s known, major oil-producing regions outside China. Sargis Tmogveli, a Georgian scholar, quotes on that high point of caliphal power:
Thou art master of Eran and T’huran;
From China to Qirwan,
All is thine and under thy command.
In the Caucasus, the city of Tiflis—now Tblisi, the capital of Georgia—grew into a center of trade between the Muslim state and northern Europe. Gold and silver coins have been found in the city that date to the ninth century and were minted in Baghdad, Muhammadiyyah (in Armenia), Kufa, Basra, Aran and Balkh, as well as in Africa and India. In addition, according to the Arab geographer al-Maqdisi, Georgia had become an important exporter of naphtha and bitumen to Baghdad. Beyond that, the region was also strategically important to the caliphate: It was a buffer province facing northern Byzantium.
Tags: Art, George Costakis, Margit Rowell, Soviet Constructivism, Soviet Union
Documenting the first exhibition of Russian collector George Costakis’s holdings of early 20th-century Russian artists in the United States, the catalogue Art of the Avant-Garde in Russia: Selections from the George Costakis Collection is an invaluable resource for scholars of art of the avant-garde in Russia. Art historian Angelica Zander Rudenstine’s introduction describes the Costakis Collection’s formation and important details from George Costakis’s biography. Margit Rowell reexamines certain premises about Russian and Soviet avant-garde art in the essay, “New Insights into Soviet Constructivism: Painting, Constructivists, Production Art.” The publication also includes color and black-and-white reproductions of selected works with entries and biographies of the 39 artists in the exhibition.
via From the Archives.
Tags: Afghanistan, Central Asia, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajik, Tajikistan, Uzbek, Uzbekistan
COUNTRY PROFILE: TAJIKISTAN January 2007
Formal Name: Republic of Tajikistan (Jumhurii Tojikiston).
Short Form: Tajikistan.
Term for Citizen(s): Tajikistani(s).
Other Major Cities: Istravshan, Khujand, Kulob, and Qurghonteppa.
Independence: The official date of independence is September 9, 1991, the date on which Tajikistan withdrew from the Soviet Union.
Public Holidays: New Year’s Day (January 1), International Women’s Day (March 8), Navruz (Persian New Year, March 20, 21, or 22), International Labor Day (May 1), Victory Day (May 9), Independence Day (September 9), Constitution Day (November 6), and National Reconciliation Day (November 9).
Flag: The flag features three horizontal stripes: a wide middle white stripe with narrower red (top) and green stripes. Centered in the white stripe is a golden crown topped by seven gold, five-pointed stars. The red is taken from the flag of the Soviet Union; the green represents agriculture and the white, cotton. The crown and stars represent the country’s sovereignty and the friendship of nationalities.
Tags: Afghanistan, Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Post-Soviet states, Russia, Soviet Union, Tajikistan
|GLOBAL HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES, 1995 VOLUME II: COUNTRY ESTIMATES||GIF||Created: 12/28/1994|
|(EST PUB DATE) GLOBAL HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES, 1993-94||GIF||Created: 10/1/1993|
|THE REPUBLICS OF THE FORMER USSR: THE OUTLOOK FOR THE NEXT YEAR (SNIE 11-18.2-9||GIF||Created: 9/1/1991|
|WHITHER GORBACHEV: SOVIET POLICY AND POLITICS IN THE 1990S (NIE 11-18-87)||GIF||Created: 11/1/1987|
Tags: Afghanistan, Central Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States, Moscow, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, World Bank
|FY 1998 Assistance to the NIS Request||. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||$15,400,000|
Tajikistan is the poorest of the five Central Asian Republics and the only one of the five in which underlying ethnic, regional, economic and ideological strains have led to open warfare and major population displacements. A cease-fire has continued to be in partial effect since late 1993, while UN-moderated peace talks appear to be making incremental progress in establishing a political consensus. The UN Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) monitors the cease-fire agreement, while Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Russian-led troops, at the request of the local government, guard the southern Tajikistan boundary and monitor the ceasefire. Donor efforts are making a difference in Tajikistan’s situation. For example, the economy, in free fall since independence, achieved a measure of economic stability last year. U.S. interests are based on providing humanitarian aid, helping to establish a framework for sustainable economic growth, promoting regional stability in Central Asia and promoting an independent, democratic and market-oriented Tajikistan that is friendly to the U.S. and constructively engaged in international political and economic relationships.
Tags: Central Asia, Khanate of Khiva, October Revolution, Persian people, Russia, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajik, Tajikistan
A number of issues in the history of Tajikistan demand careful scrutiny. The most compelling of these issues, however, belong to the early phases of Soviet rule in Central Asia. One such issue is the outcome of the national-administrative divisions of Central Asia, especially the treatment that the Tajiks received at the hand of their Soviet compatriots. Admittedly, this is a somewhat obscure issue, but one that merits attention-one that illustrates a disturbing aspect of Soviet history.
An involved issue, an understanding of the national-administrative divisions requires an intimate knowledge of the 1917 Revolution, the establishment of Soviet rule in Central Asia, and the extent of the authority of the Soviets and the Communist Party during the life time of V. I. Lenin and thereafter. It also requires documentation of glaring “mistakes” that, in the long run, complicated the Tajiks’ achievement of a national government at that time. Our understanding of this latter issue is contingent upon other factors like an understanding of Pan-Turkism, the retrogressive and anti-nationalistic movement that incurred great losses on the Tajiks and, of course, the availability of documents that prove the point. The fact that this movement continues to frustrate the Tajiks’ aspiration for self-government-it is an issue at the present-makes the need for dealing with it more imperative.
Tags: Afghanistan, Asia, Central Asia, New York, Russia, September 11 attacks, Soviet Union, Tajikistan
Tajikistan shares a 1,200 kilometer border with Afghanistan and is one of the countries identified by military planners as a possible base of U.S. military and humanitarian operations in the region. Tajikistan has been a low priority for U.S. foreign policy makers since its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Suddenly, it has become a strategic partner in the U.S. government‘s counter-terrorism campaign following the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington, D.C.. It is also a potential haven for tens of thousands of displaced people seeking to flee Afghanistan.
Tags: Afghanistan, China, Maps, Pamir Mountains, Russian language, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, Turkestan, Xinjiang
Tags: Afghanistan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norway), Russia, Russian language, Soviet Union, Tajik, Tajik language, Tajikistan
Since Tajikistan took over border protection from Russia, whose troops performed the role until 2005, it has sought donor funding to modernise and consolidate its defences.
New border posts have been built or are planned, but existing ones are in need of refurbishment. And the Tajik frontier force is still using obsolete arms, equipment and radios from the Soviet era. Its vehicles date mostly from the early 1980s.
Tags: Afghanistan, Islam, Journeyman Pictures, Russia, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, World Food Programme
The ruling Kulabis are reliant on Russian funding, and the resurrection of an Islamic mosque suggests the Islamists are yet again establishing a strong hold.
A report on the defeat and recovery of Islam in Tajikistan. A bus rumbles through the shimmering heat to a Russian check point. Behind it, 1300 miles of barbed wire mark Tajikistan’s border with Afghanistan. The bus contains anxious Garmis returning home from Afghan refugee camps. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, they were driven out by a vicious civil war between their own Islamic forces and the Soviet backed Kulabis. They now return, fearing reprisals from a new Kulabi government, but hoping after 4 years to resume normal life. In the south where the worst fighting took Place, villages are full of bombed out buildings and weary widows crouching in the dust. Starving hungry, they wait patiently for flour from the World Food Programme to be weighed out on antique scales and distributed. In the capital, Dushanbe, the Prime Minister claims stiffly that the economy is not collapsing and that “in the very near future we will be able to pay salaries”. With Russia‘s financial support, Kulabis cling onto power, stationing their khaki tanks on every tree lined avenue. But the careful restoration of an blue mosaic mosque represents an Islamic renaissance. If Russia pulls out, Garmis in exile may storm the capital and transform Tajikistan into an Islamic state. Report on the aftermath of civil war and the suppression of ethnic/political differences. Includes archive footage of the civil war.
Tags: Afghanistan, Asia, Central Asia, Eurasia, Fergana Valley, Mongolia, Soviet, Soviet Union, Turkmenistan, United States, Xinjiang
Central Asia is known by many names, including Eurasia, Middle Asia, and Inner Asia. At its core, the region is composed of five states that became independent nations following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Scholars sometimes include Afghanistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang province of China within the label Central Asia. For this project, Central Asia is restricted to the five former Soviet countries, while Afghanistan is classified in Southwest Asia, and Mongolia and Xinjiang as part of East Asia. These states have a shared landmass of 1.5 million square miles, about one-half the size of the United States.
The region’s unity comes from a shared history and religion. Central Asia saw two cultural and economic traditions blossom and intermix along the famed Silk Road: nomadic and sedentary. Nomadic herdsmen, organized into kinship groupings of clans, lived beside sedentary farmers and oasis city dwellers. Four of the countries share Turkic roots, while the Tajiks are of Indo-European descent, linguistically re- lated to the Iranians. While still recognizable today, this shared heritage has devel- oped into distinct ethnic communities. (more…)
Tags: Asia, Central Asia, GAFUROV, Moscow, Shahram Akbarzadeh, Shirin Akiner, Soviet Union, Tajik, Tajikistan
GAFUROV, BOBOJAN GAFUROVICH
(1908–1977), Tajik politician and scholar. Bobojan Ga- furovich Gafurov led the Tajikistan Soviet Socialist Republic from 1946 until 1956 as the first secretary of the Communist Party. Born in Ispisar (a remote northern province of the republic) in 1908, he began his career as a journalist and lecturer before joining the Communist Party apparatus and climbing up to the highest political post in the republic under Josef Stalin (1879–1953), then Soviet leader. In 1956 he left the republic to become the director of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Soviet Academy of Science in Moscow. (more…)
Tags: Breed, Central Asia, HORSE, Karabair, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Also known as Karabair- skaya (Russian), the Karabair is one of the most ancient horse breeds of Central Asia. In appearance the Karabair resembles the Arabian, Persian, and Turk-menian as well as the steppe horse breeds. The breed is improved through pure breeding. Karabair horses show good endurance and versatile working qualities. This breed was developed in Uzbekistan and north- ern Tajikistan (former Soviet republics of Central Asia) under the influence of southern and steppe breeds. It is well adapted to both saddle and harness, and has the typical build of a saddle and harness horse. (more…)