Ethnologue report for Tajikistan

Posted: April 15, 2012 in History, Language, Tajikistan
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Languages of Tajikistan

See language map.

[See also SIL publications on the languages of Tajikistan.]

Tajikistan. 7,011,556. National or official language: Tajiki. Literacy rate: 99%. Immigrant languages: Aimaq, Armenian (6,000), Bashkort (5,410), Belarusan, Dungan, Georgian (810), Hazaragi, Kazakh (9,610), Korean (13,000), Lak (860), Lithuanian (470), Osetin (8,000), Romanian (580), Russian (237,000), Standard German, Tatar (80,000), Turkish, Turkmen (14,000), Ukrainian (41,000), Uyghur (3,580), Western Balochi (4,840). Information mainly from S. Akiner 1983; B. Comrie 1987; A. Kibrik 1991; T. Sebeok 1963. The number of individual languages listed for Tajikistan is 12. Of those, all are living languages.

Arabic, Tajiki Spoken

[abh] 1,000 in Tajikistan. Population total all countries: 6,000. Khatlon Province, Vakhsh Valley villages; Kuliab and Leninabad cities. Mainly small villages. Also in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Arabic, Bukhara Arabic, Buxara Arabic, Central Asian, Jugari, Tajiji Arabic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Farsi, Western

[pes] 50,000 in Tajikistan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Persian.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian

Kyrgyz

[kir] 64,000 in Tajikistan.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian

Parya

[paq] 3,000 in Tajikistan (2008). Population total all countries: 4,250. Hissar Valley. Also in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Afghana-Yi Nasfurush, Afghana-Yi Siyarui, Laghmani, Pbharya.  Dialects: May be Marwari [rwr] dialect, related to Panjabi[pan], or Laghman dialect of Southeast Pashayi [psi] of Afghanistan. Subgroups: Kalu, Jitain, Juni, Maggar, Bisiyan, Mussali, Shuiya.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified

Pashto, Southern

[pbt] 4,000 in Tajikistan (1970).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto

Sanglechi-Ishkashimi

[sgl] 500 in Tajikistan. Ethnic population: 1,000 in Tajikistan (1990 A. Kibrik).  Dialects: Ishkashimi (Ishkashim, Eshkashmi), Zebak (Zebaki), Sanglich.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir

Shughni

[sgh] 40,000 in Tajikistan (1975 SIL). 20,000 Shugan, 1,500 to 2,000 Oroshor, 15,000 Rushan. Population total all countries: 60,000. Ethnic population: 73,000 (1990 A. Kibrik) including 50,000 Shugni, 2,000 Oroshor, 18,000 Rushan, 800 Khufi, 3,000 Bartang. Gorno-Bagakhshan, Pamir Mountains. Also in Afghanistan. Alternate names: Shugnan-Rushan.  Dialects: Rushani (Rushan, Roshani, Oroshani), Bartangi (Bartang), Oroshor (Roshorvi), Khufi (Khuf, Chuf), Shughni (Shugan, Shugnan, Shighni, Khugni). Khufi and Bartangi dialects may be separate languages. Oroshani may be separate from Rushani. Not intelligible with Sarikoli [srh] (called ‘Tajiki’ in China).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami

Tajiki

[tgk] 3,340,000 in Tajikistan (1991). Population total all countries: 4,457,500. Also in Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation (Asia), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Galcha, Tadzhik, Tajiki Persian.  Dialects: 4 groups of small dialects; no distinct boundaries. Dialect blending into Dari Persian [prs] in Afghanistan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian

Uzbek, Northern

[uzn] 873,000 in Tajikistan.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern

Wakhi

[wbl] 7,000 in Tajikistan (1993 UBS). Ethnic population: 20,000 in Tajikistan (1990 A. Kibrik). Gorno-Badakhshan, Pamir Mountains. Alternate names: Guhjali, Khik, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi.  Dialects: Western Wakhi, Central Wakhi, Eastern Wakhi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir

Yagnobi

[yai] 12,000. Zafarabad; north of Dushanbe; Yagnob River, (the homeland) high mountain valley. Alternate names: Yaghnabi, Yaghnobi, Yaghnubi, Yagnabi, Yagnob, Yagnubi.  Dialects: Western Yagnobi, Eastern Yagnobi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern

Yazgulyam

[yah] 4,000 (1994 UBS). Ethnic population: 5,710. Along Yazgulyam River, Gorno-Badakhshan Ao. Alternate names: Iazgulem, Yazgulam, Yazgulyami.  Dialects: Upper Yazgulyam, Lower Yazgulyam. Little dialect difference.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami

Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.

via Ethnologue report for Tajikistan.

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